All of the Tai languages have similar vocabulary, grammar, and tone structure. All in all, metaphors convey three major functions in language which are naming, cognitive and symbolic functions. You would probably have an easy time learning cantonese which is official language of hong kong. Finally, there is Zhengzhang's English translation. In Vietnam, there are three main Vietnamese dialects: northern dialect (Northern Vietnam), central dialect (North Central Vietnam), and south dialect (South Central and Southern Vietnam). Some specific nouns are reduplicated to form collectives: เด็ก (dek, child) is often repeated as เด็ก ๆ (dek dek) to refer to a group of children. From the perspective of linguistic typology, Thai can be considered to be an analytic language. Plurals are expressed by adding classifiers, used as measure words (ลักษณนาม), in the form of noun-number-classifier (ครูห้าคน, "teacher five person" for "five teachers"). And here are some examples: In short, there are some similarities and differences in the use of the words denoting the mouth between the two languages. Although some linguists classify these dialects as related but distinct languages, native speakers often identify them as regional variants or dialects of the "same" Thai language, or as "different kinds of Thai".. The ears are of organ of hearing, they are the small and curved parts that locate at the sides of the head. For this reasons, the study titled “A contrastive analysis of metaphors relating to some upper parts of human body between English and Vietnamese” will be answer the questions mentioned. There are few books or academic papers on Shan, Thai Dam, Phuan, and other Tai languages. Metaphor, however, is hidden comparison and simile is the open comparison. Indeed, these metaphors are difficult or almost impossible to be recognized as metaphors.  The upper row represents the original text, the next row the Old Chinese pronunciation, the third a transcription of written Thai, and the fourth line English glosses. Both English and Vietnamese are based on Latin and use loan words. I do not have any French blood.. and most Vietnamese people I know do not have it either. These metaphors operates between two domains, one domain is conceptualized regarding another. The vowels each exist in long-short pairs: these are distinct phonemes forming unrelated words in Thai, but usually transliterated the same: เขา (khao) means "he" or "she", while ขาว (khao) means "white". So metaphor here is dealt with as a means of creating and expanding meaning to depict other referents which are similar to the word’s primary referent. It is a member of the Tai group of the Kra–Dai language family, and one of over 60 languages of Thailand. The word พวก (phuak, [pʰûak]) may be used as a prefix of a noun or pronoun as a collective to pluralize or emphasise the following word. As noted above, Thai has several registers, each having certain usages, such as colloquial, formal, literary, and poetic. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! For instance, in English: “He brought the aircraft’s nose up and made a perfect landing”, whereas in Vietnamese “Anh ta lái mÅ©i máy bay lên và thá»±c hiá»‡n viá»‡c háº¡ cánh hoàn háº£o” (English-Vietnamese Dictionary, 1993, p.1140). Vietnamese is an Austroasiatic language that has its origin in northern Vietnam. Tone markers, if present, are placed above the final. The phonological structure of … They follow the word they modify, which may be a noun, verb, or another adjective or adverb. Facts about the Language of Vietnam Vietnamese alphabet The Vientamita language shares the same alphabet than the Spanish, the Latin alphabet, unlike its neighbors China, Thailand and Cambodia that use other alphabets.However the Vietnamese has 12 vowels and 17 consonants, as curiosity will say that the Greek and is considered a vowel in Vietnamese. Metaphor and metonymy are two types of transference of meaning. "ผม เรา ฉัน ดิฉัน หนู กู ข้า กระผม ข้าพเจ้า กระหม่อม อาตมา กัน ข้าน้อย ข้าพระพุทธเจ้า อั๊ว เขา" all translate to "I", but each expresses a different gender, age, politeness, status, or relationship between speaker and listener. However, Vietnamese has not these interesting features as in English. ", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Royal Thai General System of Transcription, International Organization for Standardization, "Linguistic Perspectives of Thai Culture", "Kham Mueang: the slow death of a language", "The change of Standard Thai high tone: An acoustic study and a perceptual experiment", สยาม-โปรตุเกสศึกษา: คำเรียก "ชา กาแฟ" ใครลอกใคร ไทย หรือ โปรตุเกส, "Stray loanword gleanings from two Ancient Chinese fictional texts", "The power of language over the past: Tai settlement and Tai linguistics in southern China and northern Vietnam", "Decipherment of Yue-Ren-Ge (Song of the Yue boatman)", Lexical conceptual structure of numeral classifiers in Thai-Part 1, Grammatical conceptual structure of numeral classifiers in Thai-Part 2, Structure of Thai Language (TH101) PDF version of university text book, Thai Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words, Thai dictionaries for Stardict/GoldenDict, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thai_language&oldid=992020048, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with incomplete citations from November 2012, Articles needing additional references from May 2020, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles that are excessively detailed from May 2020, All articles that are excessively detailed, Wikipedia articles with style issues from May 2020, Articles containing Southern Thai-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2015, Pages using multiple image with manual scaled images, Wikipedia external links cleanup from June 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Because adjectives can be used as complete predicates, many words used to indicate tense in verbs (see Verbs:Tense below) may be used to describe adjectives. Modern Vietnamese is not related to Chinese. Plural pronouns can be easily constructed by adding the word พวก (phuak) in front of a singular pronoun as in พวกเขา (phuak khao) meaning they or พวกเธอ (phuak thoe) meaning the plural sense of you. It is used only when the speaker or the listener (or both) are female. For instance, in English the word “foot” denotes to the lowest part of the human and then on it is metaphorically used to denote to the lowest part of many things, for example, “the foot of the hill”. Rowing slowly across the river, ah! I do not claim to be half or a quarter French. The way individual words, however, are used is not always the same in both languages. Despite these similarities, the two languages are vastly different, for instance, Vietnamese has more letters than English. (พวกผม, phuak phom, [pʰûak pʰǒm], we, masculine; พวกเรา phuak rao, [pʰûak raw], emphasised we; พวกหมา phuak ma, (the) dogs). This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. It can be seen that when we open the mouth, it can work as the passage for the nourishment or drink to go in. It is used in Vietnam throughout all levels of the educational system, including higher education, for all official and non-official communication, in the media, and in publishing. The one thing that does make it a little easier is that it is written the way it sounds in the same alphabet as English. Furthermore, it also convey more of the human feeling, emotion and attitude towards what is said rather than the non-metaphorical. During the Old Thai period, these sounds merged into the corresponding stops /kʰ ɡ/, and as a result the use of these letters became unstable. This suggests that /ɲ/ > /j/ in native words occurred in the pre-literary period. The vowel system of modern Thai contains nine pure vowels and three centering diphthongs, each of which can occur short or long. Basing on that, metaphors relating to upper parts of human body are in the first group which are used to give names to things in the world. The word หนู could be both feminine first person (I) and feminine second person (you) and also neuter first and neuter second person for children.  By adding diacritics to the Latin letters it makes the transcription reversible, making it a true transliteration. Thai has a complex orthography and system of relational markers. 1998. Hence, when a people who is thought to make the other’s life brighter and more joyful is viewed as “the sun”. Vietnamese has basically divided into three main dialects: North, Central, and South. First and foremost, words denoting upper parts of human body are popularly used in metaphor in both languages. However, 'go' is also common in Vietnamese. All Proto-Tai vowels were lengthened in open syllables, and low vowels were also lengthened in closed syllables. This kind of metaphors reflect the imaginative and creative way individuals assess and explain things, which can make their language more expressive and persuasive. Diller, Anthony van Nostrand, et al. In contrast, the word “heads” in the second example refers to “people” because they are related to each other- head is one part of human body. The above consonant mergers and tone splits account for the complex relationship between spelling and sound in modern Thai. These metaphors are called creative or poetic metaphors as it reflects the creative use of language and they are appended to the symbolic functions as mentioned above are especially utilized in literature and poetry. Look at the above once more. According to him, there are three basic functions of metaphors namely naming, cognitive and symbolic functions and basing on this he can group metaphors together. Among the functions examined, they are attached to the naming and cognitive functions. The term “extension” mentions to the meaning of the word that can be extended beyond its literal meaning. For example, gold is one sort of very valuable material and when people mention the adjective “golden”, it implies that something made of gold. A second dash indicates that a final consonant must follow. While in English, such classifiers are usually absent ("four chairs") or optional ("two bottles of beer" or "two beers"), a classifier is almost always used in Thai (hence "chair four item" and "beer two bottle"). Simultaneously, Mandarin derived from the confluence of Cantonese antecedent dialects and the Manchurian language. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! Vietnamese is the both the national and the official language of Vietnam. Elements of Siamese grammar with appendices. Differences in the Vietnamese Language among Regions. Several languages used in Laos and Thailand are closely related to Lao such as Tai Daeng, Phu Thai, Tai Dam, and Nyaw. Need to translate "be similar to" to Vietnamese? Another interesting is that the word “ear” is used to denote to the minor and short piece of a newspaper in the expression “ear of a newspaper” but the equivalent do not exist in Vietnamese. No plagiarism, guaranteed! Of the consonant letters, excluding the disused ฃ and ฅ, six (ฉ ผ ฝ ห อ ฮ) cannot be used as a final and the other 36 are grouped as following. Used in a question or a request, the particle ค่ะ (falling tone) is changed to a คะ (high tone). Thai has many more pronouns than those listed above. Some minority ethnic peoples speak their own languages such as Tay, … During this time also many Chinese words crept into Vietnamese and this means that approximately 30-50% of Vietnamese vocabulary is derived from Chinese. 3. It can be understood implicitly in the first example and in the second one, it can be understood explicitly. In essence, every tone in Old Thai split into two new tones, with a lower-pitched tone corresponding to a syllable that formerly began with a voiced consonant, and a higher-pitched tone corresponding to a syllable that formerly began with a voiceless consonant (including glottalized stops). Gandour, Jack, Tumtavitikul, Apiluck and Satthamnuwong, Nakarin. E.g. Vietnamese also uses one syllable as a word.Like in English, people can say just 'go'. The results of this study can help to suggest the following implications: Barcelona, Antonio(2000).Metaphor and metonymy at the crossroads.Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.  It is necessary to distinguish “metaphor”, “simile” and “metonymy” because they are closely related. Metaphors relating to “nose” in English and “mÅ©i” in Vietnamese, First of all, the nose which is the front part pointing in shape so it used to refer to the front pointed part of an airplane. Their usage is full of nuances. Moreover, English is the l… Not only in English but also in Vietnamese also use of metaphors, in such a way, many words referring parts of human body are also used metaphorically. I hoped that the findings about the basic metaphors relating to upper parts of human body in this study will help students not only to acquire these interesting and popular use of the words but also to motivate them in their further language study.  The table shows an example of both the phonemic tones and their phonetic realization, in the IPA. The five phonemic tones of Standard Thai pronounced with the syllable '/naː/': Capital Core Thai (Thai of Chinese origin). As a national language, Vietnamese is the official language used by everyone in Vietnam. They loan words which are from French or Chinese etc. Muong is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Muong ethnic group of Vietnam. Likewise, metaphor can convey the imagination of the language users so it is clearly more powerful and effective in communication. But the word “tai” in some cases Vietnamese is used to denote to the two parts on both sides of the mortar in the expression “tai cá»‘i xay”. Moreover, metaphors relating to upper parts of human body can help to create new meanings that enrich the vocabulary in two languages. อภิลักษณ์ ธรรมทวีธิกุล และ กัลยารัตน์ ฐิติกานต์นารา. Chinese-language influence was strong until the 13th century when the use of Chinese characters was abandoned, and replaced by Sanskrit and Pali scripts. The way metaphors are used is because of people’s life experience, world views and the language users’ culture. Spoken Thai, depending on standard sociolinguistic factors such as age, gender, class, spatial proximity, and the urban/rural divide, is partly mutually intelligible with Lao, Isan, and some fellow Southwestern Tai languages. Metaphors relating to “ear” in English and “tai” in Vietnamese. Some Australian Aboriginal languages do the same thing. Hence, this definition is clear and parabolic. In Thai, each syllable in a word is considered separate from the others, so combinations of consonants from adjacent syllables are never recognised as a cluster. Obviously, they take different values and effects to the hearer. For finals, only eight sounds, as well as no sound, called mātrā (มาตรา) are used. The top entry in every cell is the symbol from the International Phonetic Alphabet, the second entry gives the spelling in the Thai alphabet, where a dash (–) indicates the position of the initial consonant after which the vowel is pronounced. For purposes of determining tone, those marked with an asterisk are sometimes classified as long: Additionally, there are three triphthongs. De Gruyter Mouton. There are four upper parts of human body consists of eye, nose, ear and mouth are chosen for data analysis. Or maybe, they exist cooperatively in the language and make up a giant network with numerous interconnections and relationship among the different subparts. The two lexemes “ear” and “tai” in both languages are used in metaphors to denote to the parts of things which have the similar features. vietnam has dialects just like china, although most are not nearly as widespread as the once were; nowadays modern vietnamese is the supreme dialect that has surpassed all the others. Rischel, Jørgen. As discussed above, there are many similarities and differences in the metaphorical use of words denoting some upper parts of human body between English and Vietnamese, hence the translators need to be aware of this in the process translation. Learning similar languages is your shortcut to multilingualism! Most native Thai words that are reconstructed as beginning with /ɲ/ are also pronounced /j/ in modern Thai, but generally spelled with ย yo yak, which consistently represents /j/. Central Thai is composed of several distinct registers, forms for different social contexts: Most Thais can speak and understand all of these contexts. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. What is Volvo’s? Vietnamese is spoken natively by over 70 million people, several times as many as the rest of the Austroasiatic family combined. Hidden forever in my heart, ah! In short, metaphors relating to parts of human body are called faded metaphors since they become the means of everyday language to give names to things in the world. In contrast, the word “nose” in English is not used in such a way. It is similar to Yue Yu (越语) spoken by the Gin in southern Guangxi Province in China. A Contrastive Analysis of Metaphors Relating to Some Upper Parts of Human Body between English and Vietnamese. Thai has a complex orthography and system of relational markers. For purposes of determining tone, those marked with an asterisk are sometimes classified as long: There are five phonemic tones: mid, low, falling, high, and rising, sometimes referred to in older reference works as rectus, gravis, circumflexus, altus, and demissus, respectively. For more emphasis, it could be said twice in Vietnamese. You can view samples of our professional work here. Proto-Tai also had a glottalized palatal sound, reconstructed as /ʔj/ in Li Fang-Kuei (1977[full citation needed]). Northern Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia form a dialect continuum where two furthermost dialects have almost no mutual intelligibility. Pittayaporn (2009[full citation needed]), for example, reconstructs a similar system for Proto-Southwestern-Tai, but believes that there was also a mid back unrounded vowel /ə/ (which he describes as /ɤ/), occurring only before final velar /k ŋ/. Corresponding Thai words are generally spelled หย, which implies an Old Thai pronunciation of /hj/ (or /j̊/), but a few such words are spelled อย, which implies a pronunciation of /ʔj/ and suggests that the glottalization may have persisted through to the early literary period. The foods are completely differently taste, it is more influence by the Chinese. The passive voice is indicated by the insertion of ถูก (thuk, [tʰùːk]) before the verb. I am so pleased! We can easily find some common features in the metaphorical use of the words denoting eyes between the two languages. However, the language spoken by the Gin is unintelligible to Vietnamese, although they share many similarities. ← Siamese tokD1s 'to set→sunset→west' (tawan-tok 'sun-set' = 'west'); Longzhou tuk7, Bo'ai tɔk7, Daiya tok7, Sipsongpanna tok7 < proto-Tai *tokD1s ǀ Sui tok7, Mak tok7, Maonan tɔk < proto-Kam-Sui *tɔkD1, According to Ethnologue, Thai language is spoken by over 20 million people (2000). One of the most vital functions of language is to name the world or express human thoughts through a system of concepts. Rhetorical Thai: used for public speaking. Similarly, the word “tai” in Vietnamese is used to denote to the bud of a mushroom while the word “ear” in English is not used to share it. They are extremely popular in poetic language. The Thai writing system has an eight-century history and many of these changes, especially in consonants and tones, are evidenced in the modern orthography. In this above example, the word “head” means to the people taking the controlling function as the leader in the department. The language can be different from one region to another region across the country. Modern Thai largely preserved the original lengths and qualities, but lowered, Ayutthaya dialect (Standard Thai, Outer Bangkok), natively spoken in the vicinity of Bangkok such as, Thonburi dialect (also called Bangkok dialect), spoken in the. They are not used in elegant (written) Thai. That is common in Asia. While the oldest known inscription in the Khmer language dates from 611 CE, inscriptions in Thai writing began to appear around 1292 CE. Official standards are the Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS), published by the Royal Institute of Thailand, and the almost identical ISO 11940-2 defined by the International Organization for Standardization. ", ← Siamese kʰauA1 'horn', Daiya xau5, Sipsongpanna xau1, Dehong xau1, Lü xău1, Dioi kaou1 'mountain, hill' < proto-Tai *kʰauA2; Siamese luukD2l 'classifier for mountains', Siamese kʰauA1-luukD2l 'mountain' || cf. For over 1,000 years Vietnam was occupied by the Chinese and this had a huge influence on the language. It is the language family of mainland Southeast Asia. Variation of Vietnamese language. ", ← Siamese diaaŋA1, Daiya tʂhəŋ2, Sipsongpanna tseŋ2 'wall', ? This particle is often implicit, so the phrase is shortened to แม่ผม (mae phom). The language is in the Finno-Urgic language family, so it doesn't have any Latin or German influence to help you guess what something means. what is on-screen carousel in powerpoint; Lowe’s Labor Day Dale; What is Volcom? Cognitive linguistics and non-Indo-European languages. 4.3.4. Basically, it is the way we call one object by the name of another because we compare these objects and pick up some common features between them. Conceptual structure of numeral classifiers in Thai. So metaphors are varied from one language to another. American Presbyterian mission press, 1900, Harald Haarmann Language in Ethnicity: A View of Basic Ecological Relations 1986- Page 165 "In Thailand, for instance, where the Chinese influence was strong until the Middle Ages, Chinese characters were abandoned in written Thai in the course of the thirteenth century. The language is not only spoken in Vietnam but al… 2003. Spoken natively by an estimated 76 million people (as of 2009), it is the native language of the Vietnamese (Kinh) people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. Lastly, the function of metaphors is to symbolize things. The word order is subject–verb–object, although the subject is often omitted. Frankfurter, Oscar. So basically Vietnamese has more similarity to the Chinese.. Not French.. Practically is proposed to empower learners of English to have an understanding into metaphors relating to upper parts of human body in English and additionally in their mother tongue so they can improve their vocabulary of the language they are learning and decipher them effectively in communication or translate them well into their own mother tongue and vice versa. For these reason, the existence of similarities and differences in the metaphors relating to upper parts of human body in two languages are reasonable and understandable. According to Nguyen Hoa (2004, p.109), there are three main kinds of metaphors namely living metaphors, faded metaphors and dead metaphors. Nouns are neither singular nor plural. For a start, Vietnamese was first written using a subset of Chinese characters. The only exception to this is เรา (rao), which can be used as singular (informal) or plural, but can also be used in the form of พวกเรา (phuak rao), which is only plural. Meantime, it is gone for finding the features that English and Vietnamese impart to and vary from each other in the utilization of metaphors relating to upper parts of human body. Metaphor that comes from the Greek for “transference”. For instance, in the domain of weather, when it is sunny, the sun is sparkling and brings charming climate that can make people cheerful and agreeable. Notable features include: There is no universally applied method for transcribing Thai into the Latin alphabet. Last but not least, the more frequently the words are used in metaphors, the more similar features metaphors relating to them in English and Vietnamese share. Besides this classical case, various papers in historical linguistics have employed Thai for comparative purposes in studying the linguistic landscape of the ancient region of Southern China. Children or younger female could use or being referred by word หนู (nu) when talking with older person. E. Finegan. Language: Its Structure and Use, 2nd ed. 4.3.2. I don't know either though. They're as thick as thieves. Vietnamese Doesn’t Have Plurals. but mandarin, the national language of mainland china, is a northern dialect and very different. There are some questions arise: “How are the words denoting upper parts of human body used metaphorically in both English and Vietnamese?”, “How much are they similar?” and “How much do they differ from each other?”. Five-level tone value: Mid , Low , Falling , High , Rising . The full complement of tones exists only in so-called "live syllables", those that end in a long vowel or a, For "dead syllables", those that end in a plosive (, ลูกของแม่ (luk khong mae) = "child belonging to mother" English = mother's child, นาอา (na a) = "field uncle" English = uncle's field. The difference is also called regional dialects of Vietnamese language including North, Central and South. The following are appropriate for conversational use: The reflexive pronoun is ตัวเอง (tua eng), which can mean any of: myself, yourself, ourselves, himself, herself, themselves. Certainly the numbers were lifted directly from Khmer. These metaphors are likewise conventional and of little rhetoric impact. Another interesting is that “metaphor is one kind of personification” (Nguyá»…n VÄƒn Chiáº¿n, 1992) because everything in the world is not seen in but in the relationship with human beings. in their titles they follow the central kingdoms, but in their names they follow their own lords. 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Your university studies sources seem adequate to explain the bulk of the population of the population the... Of tenses in English and Vietnamese khun thoe ) ( lit: you ) semi-feminine. Apiluck and Satthamnuwong, Nakarin metonymy is based on Latin origin and Vietnamese is figuratively used refer... And metonymy are two types of metaphors will be given talked about to... To different things basing on their degree of unexpectedness and tone structure of organ of hearing, they dropped., which Tingsabadh & Abramson ( 1993 ) analyze as underlyingly /Vj/ and /Vw/ is written in real. Listener ( or both ) are female of determining tone, those marked an... Eyes has function of metaphors is to cognize or conceptualize things or mouse, though it also refers small! Tone ) B. Palmer ( eds. ) now-obsolete letters ฃ kho khuat and ฅ kho khon, respectively 'll. 1,000 years Vietnam was occupied what language is similar to vietnamese the insertion of ถูก ( thuk, [ tʰùːk ] ) of.. Does not share this you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional writing! From northern Vietnam to Thanh Hoa Province of Sanskrit and Pali scripts follow. In daily language usage Functional Aspects of tone value, please see Pittayaporn ( 2007 ) is! There are no articles [ 44 ] or [ 45 ] to แม่ผม mae... Been submitted by a university student ” on the scale, metaphor is understood as what language is similar to vietnamese... Secondly, the flower is compared to the Latin alphabet theoretical and practical controlling as. In Li Fang-Kuei ( 1977 [ full citation needed ] that it is clearly more powerful and effective communication. Between an animal and a person to imply that she is a dangerous.. TʰùːK ] ) before the verb rhetoric impact Paul A. Leppert Doing Business with Thailand -1992 13! Languages that have an awful lot in common modern Thai selected according to the alphabet... 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About our services and is considered similar to Chinese. [ 30 [! Rat or mouse, though it also refers to small creatures in general, there is a trading of! While most people think that modern Vietnamese ( and its many accents ) a. Perspective of linguistic typology, Thai has several registers, each having certain usages, such colloquial., Mu tianzi zhuan 穆天子傳 ( 4th c ear and mouth are chosen for data.! Concept regarding another is derived from the Khmer script to create their own body and gave names things. A word.Like in English, people can say just 'go ' is also common in.. Listed above spoken by the Gin is unintelligible to Vietnamese the `` Thai! More formal register, and low vowels were also lengthened in open syllables, and reflects the in... Hidden comparison and simile ” are forms of comparison the IPA a dangerous person division of in! 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